The following table summarizes the main functional ingredients in cosmetics and hygiene products. Each ingredient has a proper origin, manufacturing process, and properties. But it may share a function with ither ingredients. So this table helps identifying the possible substitutions in your formulations, in case of shortage!

Category Function Examples
Waters Solvent Floral water, deinonized water
Oil Nourish Jojoba oil, olive oil, avocado oil, shea butter, coconut butter
Essential oils Fragrance Any essential oil
Tensioactive Foaming, emulsifying Decyl glucoside, lauryl glucoside, glyceryl oleate, Sodium cocoyl glutamate, Hydrolyzed wheat proteins
Humectant Moisturizer Aloe barbadensis juice, glycerine
Antioxidant Fat preservative Grapefruit seeds extract, Vitamin E, rosemary extract
Detergent Cleaning Myristic acid, coco glucoside, glyceryl oleate, salvia sclarea extract, quillaja saponaria extract
Texturizer Gelling/thickening Sodium carbomer, xanthan gum, guar gum, agar-agar
Emollient Soothing squallane, wheat germ oil  , calendula officinalis flower extract, chamomile flower water
Astringent Tonifying salvia sclarea extract, hamamelis virginia extract, alcohol
Anti-microbial Preservative Lactic acid (weak), sodium benzoate (not natural)
Bacteriostatic Preservative Alcohol, Myristyl, stearyl, cetyl, behenyl alcohols
pH corrector Preservative Lactic acid
UV-absorbant Skin UV protection Zinc oxide (not nano), titanium dioxide (not nano)
Antistatic Hair detangler Sodium PCA
Anti-ageing Anti-ageing Argan oil
Fat chelator Matifying Kaolin, talc, calcium carbonate
Anti-seborrheic Anti-acne Zinc pyrithinone, Propolis cera, salvia sclarea extract